Overpopulation as Social Problem
At the present day, many countries face deterioration in the social sphere as a result of quick population growth. The importance and significance of the demographic problem are recognized by all states. Population growth cannot be infinite. Stabilization of the population is one of the important conditions for the transition to sustainable ecological, economic, and political development, especially in the Middle East countries with unstable political and social situation. The population is growing. All that people need is adequate nutrition and medium. However, the planet can no longer provide this to everyone.
The entire history of the mankind is associated with the changes in population dynamics and population reproduction. Since the 18th century, the world population witnessed a particularly noticeable growth reaching its first billion. This phenomenon was figuratively called “population explosion”. The twentieth century, especially its second half, was characterized by an unprecedented population growth, profound changes in fertility and mortality, age and family structures of the world population, urbanization and migration, and significant regional differences in the development of the world’s population (United Nations, 2000). This especially relates to the developing countries and Middle East region.
At first glance, the causes of the current population explosion in these countries are simple. Afer achieving independence, these states became able to use world’s achievements in the field of medicine and with the help of international charitable organizations eliminated many epidemic diseases. As a result, within a few decades, mortality was significantly decreased maintaining high fertility; this led to a sharp rise in population increase. Obviously, its reduction is possible only through a reduction in fertility, because decline in mortality in these countries continues (Kuo, 2012).
“Demographic explosion” in the developing countries has essential features. First, rapid population growth significantly outgoes economic and social development. Thereby, it exacerbates the already severe problems of employment, social services, food security, and ecology. The second distinguishing feature of the modern “population explosion” is that its capacity is significantly greater than in the last century. Maternal mortality was quickly reduced in the Middle East countries. Therefore, low maternal mortality together with a high level of fertility leads to more intense demographic growth that has an accumulative effect. One can admit such feature as the magnitude of the phenomenon. Current “population explosion” not only takes place in many countries, but significantly affects the entire global community. Local demographic problem turns into a global food and water consumption problem since with the growth of population, the need for food grows as well. Since land is limited in its resources, the question arises, how many people the Earth can feed (Whitty, 2010).
The shortage of food is addressed in many directions. However, the most important is the intensification of agricultural production mechanization, land reclamation, use of fertilizers, plant protection with chemicals, plant growth regulators, and feed additives. Widespread adoption of the modern agricultural technologies based on the extensive use of machinery, fertilizers, and new irrigation methods is required. At the same time, poor agrarian countries do not have sufficient resources. Thus, these countries must modernize production, develop their own industry, education and training, health care, and everything that already exists in richer countries. Despite the fact that the Middle Eastern countries are not fully appropriate for agriculture due to severe weather conditions, they may also develop their industry to provide import of the necessary products and an ensure adequate standard of living.
From year to year, overpopulation of the earth will exacerbate the problem of food and clean water, which can lead to military conflicts, both local and global. In case governments of Middle East countries would not provide sufficient laws restricting birth, the society of these countries will feel significant worsening of living conditions, which, in its turn, will cause conflicts.