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Governments assure sufficient food supply at a reasonable cost (Phillips, 2015). The governments, through the Ministry of Agriculture, instruct agricultural producers about various fundamental reports on the fluctuation of demands for agricultural commodities in the regional and global framework. It informs them on the long-term behaviors of prices of the basic horticultural products. Because of the participation of the government, the agricultural sector recognizes the daily variation of the prices of the horticultural products in different sections of the interstate market. This measure guarantees adequate food production at an understandable cost precisely among the farmers.
Keeping family firms in business and reducing the dependence on imports is another reason (Phillips, 2015). The government scales up family’s firms investments for flexibility. Some family’s agro-businesses are already investing in adaptation, including developing climate-resilience commodities. In this situation, the government participation is essential in measuring up investments and assuring that they reach susceptible populations. The government accomplishes this by raising awareness about the climatic adjustment and issuing technical aid. It helps the private and public agricultural firms adapt to its impact. Additionally, this minimizes the extent of these horticultural firms from depending on imports since their products are secure in the warehouses (Phillips, 2015).
Safeguarding of farmer’s income is another key reason. The agricultural production and price risks adversely affect the farmers’ income. It has an immense effect on their capability to invest in various forms of crop production, modern techniques, and capital formation in the agricultural sector (Phillips, 2015).The government has launched farm income schemes to address production and price issues using a single policy mechanism. It safeguards the farmers by granting them insurance cover for their agricultural production and market uncertainty. The scheme guarantees continuous production, preservation of crops and facilitates to a multiplicity of crops at the national level.
Ensuring food safety and security is another noteworthy reason. The government institutions are accountable for developing food safety standards, regulating inspections and verifying the food standards. Also, it sustains an active enforcement program that handles those who do not adhere to the principles. A crucial example is the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) which promotes the Food Drug Administration (FDA) to safeguard public health adequately by bolstering the food safety system (Samuelson, 2015). It encourages the FDA to concentrate more on mitigating food safety dilemmas, rather than reacting to the issues after they generate.
The firm bill specifies a compilation, multi- year item of authorizing legislation that manages a collection of agricultural and food programs in the United States (US). The bill facilitates a certain opportunity for policy developers to thoroughly and periodically resolve agricultural and food dilemmas (Phillips, 2015). The legislators renew the bill after every five years in the US.
The Titles of the 2014 Farm Bill
Title I outlines the commodity programs. It administers farm compensations when the prices of crops or revenues decrease for essential commodity yields, such as wheat, corn, peanuts, rice, and soybeans. It consists of disaster agendas that assist livestock and tree fruit farmers control production losses resulting from natural calamity. Other functionality entails margin insurance for dairy and marketing allotment, minimum price assurance, and prevents import barriers for sugar (Phillips, 2015).
Section II specifies conservation. The plan promotes environmental stewardship and enhanced control practices (Phillips, 2015). It utilizes working lands programs, such as Environmental Quality Incentives (EQIP) and Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP). Furthermore, it incorporates land retirements bill, such as Conservation Reserve Program.
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USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) specifies the US national federal executive agency accountable for developing and implementing civic government policy on agriculture, farming, food, and forestry. The Farm Bill manages the real program content and financial plan of USDA, which is commonly legitimated by the Congress for every five years. The idea was introduced by then President Abraham Lincoln, who authorized charter to develop the USDA (“About USDA | USDA,” 2015).
What it does and Why
It promotes food, nutrition, and customer services to eradicate hunger and sustain health in the US. It governs federal-local nutrition assistance programs and connects scientific research to the nutritional requirements of the consumer via nutrition policy regulation (“USDA Mission Areas | USDA,” 2015). It intends to satisfy the needs of the commercial farmers and ranchers; facilitate agricultural commerce and production. The agency does this to guarantee food security, enhance rural development, and eradicate hunger in the US.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) specifies an international institution that participates with the rules of commerce between countries at a universal level. It was established in 1995 under the Marrakesh Concession, approved by 123 countries, among them was the United States (Philips, 2015). It substituted with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which began in the post-war period.
What it does and why
The WTO Committee implements necessary strategies that guarantee food security. It incorporates the high-level task force on international food security emergency and market information. Besides, it oversees the exercise of the Agreement on Agriculture and gives its member states the chance for advisory on any controversy relating to the application of its commitments, such as rule-based commitments. For instance, Indian legislative representative documented a Notice of Appeal concerning the committee report on measures on their agricultural import (“WTO | 2015 News items – India appeals panel report on agricultural import measures,” 2015).
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