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Observing good health habits has always prompted people into having a disease-free life. In order to achieve this, one has to eat healthy and nutritious food, which should also be balanced. Going for regular medical checkups will help one to identify diseases that are developing in the body. In addition, exercises help to keep the body healthy. They need to be done daily to strengthen body muscles and joints. Living in a clean and safe environment will also boost the health of an individual. M.K has been living a life that did not include observing health safety. Her overweight is an indication of lack of exercise. Chronic smoking for a period exceeding twenty-two years is dangerous to the lungs, and poor dietary habits affect her immunity.
Question 1: Bronchitis
The patient is in the chronic stage of bronchitis. Smoking leads to lung infections by causing irritation of the bronchioles within the lungs. It is on record that M.K has been smoking for several years, which clearly indicates that too much harm has been caused to her lungs. The use of tobacco is counter-indicative for her since it harms the respiratory system. However, she has been smoking, hence a lot of nicotine, tobacco, and tar have been continually inhaled into her airway. As a result, her body reacts by producing excessive thick mucus, which partially blocks the airway (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017). During the clinical examination, she states that mostly in the mornings a lot of sputum fills her mouth. This is followed by a chronic cough. Too much restriction of ventilation will lead to headaches and dizziness as it is observed in M.K.
A list of medications can be prescribed to the patient. The first line drug will be a bronchodilator in the form of inhaler (UCSF Medical Center, n.d.). This will relax the airway muscles enabling better ventilation. If the inhaler is used according to instructions given, it will relieve the congestion within the airway. Other medications include antibiotics, which fight respiratory infections. Pulmonary rehabilitation ensures that the patients know how to train their lungs to hold more air that is breathed in. The use of steroids will relieve the patient from the narrowing of airway muscles, facilitating easier breathing. Several recommendations can be provided to M.K; particularly, she needs to learn more about breathing techniques. Inhaling a lot of air and slowly removing it from the lungs is a survival tactic. Daily exercises are required as well since they help in decongesting the chest.
Question 2: Type of Heart Failure
Symptoms observed in the patient suggest that she is having a congestive heart failure. The main symptom that justifies this condition is the peripheral edema. The increased amount of fluids within body tissues always result in a congestive heart failure. The veins experience feebleness of circulation, hence body fluids start accumulating in the tissues (Macon & Cherney, 2016). Other organs that get affected include the kidney and the lungs. In the case of M.K, smoking has already damaged her lungs. Accumulation of fluids will worsen the ventilation problem since mucus has partially blocked it. An elevated level of lipids in the blood can also lead to vascular occlusion preventing a smooth flow of venous return and fluid’s accumulation within tissues.
Question 3: Medication for Hypertension
In order to classify the hypertensive stage of M.K, a reference range is used. 158/98 mm Hg, was the latest blood pressure of the patient after being examined. In regard to the reference values, a systolic range needs to lie within 140 up to 159 mm Hg (Rafey, 2013). On the other value, the diastolic record needs to range within 90 mm to 99 mm Hg (Rafey, 2013). Therefore, M.K’s blood pressure readings can justify that she is suffering from the first stage of the hypertension disease. Two medications are prescribed to the patient. One of them –Lotensin – is a blood vessel dilator. It works through the inhibition process of angiotensin II that has the ability to constrict veins. The result is a smooth flow of blood without increased pressure through narrowing. Diuretic usage increases the excretion of excess water from the body tissues through the kidney. Lasix performs this role hence reducing peripheral edema and lowering of the blood pressure. Concerning the effect of hypertension on the American population, it forms the leading cause of increased death cases. The diseases that are associated with hypertension in kidney and heart are very common.
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Question 4: Possible Conditions and Other Medications
Interpretation of the lipid panels shows that three out of the four readings had a higher value than the normal range of expected readings. To start with, low-density lipoproteins have got higher readings, which are an indication of the condition of diabetes type 2. Cholesterol values were above the normal range depicting that blood vessels were narrowed, which led to the increased blood pressure. Triglycerides also had a higher value, which indicated that M.K is likely to suffer from liver or kidney disease or hypothyroidism (Stöppler, 2017). Due to the values got from lipid panel readings, specific medication should be prescribed urgently; in particular, simvastatin, which is a statin derivative. It will slow down the excessive production of the cholesterol, triglycerides, or low-density lipoproteins (Life Line Screening, n.d.). Good nutrition supplemented with regular exercises like running will favor the decomposition of the cholesterol in the blood. Hypertension can be caused by increased weight, which can also lead to diabetes. The patient has a lot of excess weight, which needs to be lost through exercising or controlled reducing diet.
Question 5: Test for HbA1c
M.K had a Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, which showed results of 7,3%. According to the Lotensin (HbA1c) test range, this value is very high. The result confirmed that M.K was suffering from diabetes condition. The normal findings of a Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c test should fall within the range of 4% to 5,6% (Stöppler, 2017). If an individual is on the verge of developing diabetes, there is a window period range that is used as an indication for possibly developing diabetes. The values are 5,7% to 6.,4%. If the test’s results reveal the value above 6,5%, it indicates that a patient is diabetic. Immediate actions that concern recommendations on medication and nutrition should be offered to such a patient like M.K.
In addition, body activities relate to the results of this test. During the circulation of red blood cells within the blood, they bind with glucose. The amount of glucose that binds is related to the normal or abnormal functioning of the body systems. Too high level of blood glucose is an indicator that there is little insulin to convert the glucose into energy. Therefore, the red blood cells will bind to the so-called glues resulting in high indices of this test, and the increased value of hemoglobin A1c (WebMD, 2016). Results with an increased index have been mostly recorded from diabetic individuals. Contrary to this, normal body insulin levels will break down glucose efficiently leaving little glucose in the blood. The test will come up with a HbA1c result value along a normal range. The patient needs to aim at receiving results that would be within a normal range after the next test delivery, which should be below 7%. In order to achieve this result, she must quit smoking and practice daily exercises. Following the regimen of prescribed medications and keeping to a nutritious and balanced diet will stabilize the level of blood sugars in the patient. Regular medical checkups will help to detect possible diseases in time.